St Paul wrote to his great friend Timothy (1 Tim 2:15) that a woman can be saved through having children. It is in her role as mother that a woman can work out her salvation in fear and trembling, learning to make sacrifices for her children, for her family.
The whole of Scripture treats children as a great blessing and the more children the more blessed parents are.
St Paul goes on to warn the people of the church of Galatia that they should not be using 'pharmakeia' the potions available for the prevention of children. He does this in the context of teaching against the sin of lust in all its permutations. Even then it was obvious to St Paul that contracpetion went with the sins of lust and lack of love for one another.
St John also teaches against this in the Book of Revelation (9:21)
The potions tended to be made available by the pagans and often included some form of magic to help prevent the babies.
I don't think much has changed. There is a sort of superstition that contraception will make everything so much easier and God can stay out of the bedroom.